Individuals with disabilities and their families have many options to set aside funds without jeopardizing eligibility for means-tested government benefits. However, until recently most of the available options require the person with a disability to lose control over his or her own money. With the 2014 enactment of the Stephen J. Beck Achieving a Better Life Experience (ABLE) Act, people with disabilities can once again control some of their own money and retain a sense of autonomy. While ABLE accounts will not replace other forms of planning that are available to and recommended for people with disabilities, there are definite advantages to adding the ABLE account into an overall plan.
ABLE accounts are tax-deferred savings accounts that are closely modeled on 529 education savings plans. While ABLE is a federal program, much like 529 education plans, each state is responsible for crafting and administering its own program. Some states only allow residents to enroll, while others welcome out-of-state residents. It’s important to consider not only whether an ABLE account is appropriate, but also which state’s program best suits your situation.
To be eligible for an ABLE account, a person must be diagnosed, before age 26, with a disability that would entitle him or her “to benefits based on blindness or disability under Title II or XVI of the Social Security Act.” Once eligibility is determined, the individual or a third party (e.g., the disabled individual’s parents, siblings, or friends) can establish and fund an ABLE account.
Contributions and Account Limits
In any given year, the aggregate cash contribution from all donors (including the beneficiary him/herself) cannot exceed the annual gift tax exclusion amount ($15,000 for 2018). ABLE accounts accept cash only. Stocks, bonds, investments, and real estate cannot be contributed.
In addition to the annual contribution limits, as of January 1, 2018, the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 authorizes an employed ABLE account beneficiary to contribute an amount up to the lesser of (i) his or her compensation or (ii) the poverty line for a one-person household ($12,140 for 2018). In order to be eligible for this additional contribution the individual cannot also contribute to an employer-sponsored defined contribution plan, such as a 401(k). Since the earned income contribution can be made in addition to the aggregate cash contribution, the total possible contribution for 2018 is $27,140.
Starting this year, a new funding option is available that allows individuals to “roll over” assets from a 529 plan into an ABLE account. While this is certainly a boon for families who initially set aside funds in a 529 account for a beneficiary who cannot use it, the funds rolled over cannot exceed the standard annual ABLE account contribution limit, so depending on the value of the 529 account the rollover could take several years to complete.
One of the biggest differences between the various state programs is the maximum amount that may be held in the account. For New York plans, the limit is $100,000. In other states, the limits are significantly higher and are tied to the limits those states have imposed for 529 education plans. For example, Illinois plans have a limit of $400,000. So for people who plan to accumulate larger sums in an ABLE account, it is wise to shop around to different states.
Although ABLE accounts are generally disregarded as a resource when determining eligibility for means-tested benefits, there is an exception. The first $100,000 of assets held in the ABLE account will not count as a resource when determining Supplemental Security Income (SSI) eligibility. However, once the account balance exceeds $100,000, the individual’s SSI will be suspended until the balance is again below that amount. There is no impact on Medicaid eligibility regardless of how much money is in the account.
Growth and Distributions
Income generated on assets held in an ABLE account are not taxed. Disbursements made for qualified expenses of the disabled individual are also not taxed. If a distribution is made that does not constitute a qualified expense, the beneficiary will be responsible for both ordinary income tax and a 10 percent penalty.
Qualified expenses of the disabled individual that can be paid for from the ABLE account without incurring taxes or penalties include, but are not limited to, education, legal fees, financial management and administrative services, health and wellness, housing, transportation, personal support services, and funeral and burial expenses.
As of January 1, 2018, the designated beneficiary is permitted to claim the saver’s credit for contributions made to his or her ABLE account. The saver’s credit is a nonrefundable tax credit for eligible tax payers who make contributions to retirement savings accounts. The maximum annual contribution eligible for credit is $2,000 per individual, and the amount of the credit depends on the taxpayer’s adjusted annual income.
Benefits Eligibility Tip: An important benefit of the ABLE account is that, unlike when payments are made from a Special Needs Trust, payments for the beneficiary’s housing and food are not viewed as in-kind maintenance support for the purposes of SSI, and the beneficiary will not suffer the usual reduction for payments made by someone other than the SSI recipient for those purposes.
Words of Caution
Although ABLE accounts can be a valuable tool, there are several pitfalls to consider before opening an ABLE account. As with any decision that may affect government benefits, it is always best practice to discuss the situation and your options with your attorney, as there are many issues to consider before adding an ABLE account to a beneficiary’s plan.
For example, an important thing to consider is whether the beneficiary is capable of managing the ABLE account. Since the beneficiary is allowed to manage the funds in the account, families should carefully consider the risks (e.g., making non-qualified distributions or risking abuse and undue influence by an outside person) of the funds being immediately available. While this risk can be mitigated in several different ways beyond the scope of this article, it is certainly a point worthy of consideration.
Additionally, ABLE accounts are similar to first party Special Needs Trusts in that, to the extent the beneficiary receives medical assistance funded by Medicaid after the account is established, any funds remaining in the ABLE account at his or her death will be used to pay back the state for benefits that are paid for the beneficiary. This is the case regardless of whether the funds originally come from the beneficiary or a third party.
Notwithstanding the limitations, ABLE accounts can still be a valuable addition to a carefully crafted special needs plan.